Norfolk State University Policies Regarding Covid19 Vaccines Questions

Question 1:

The Biden Administration recently issued two new policies regarding Covid -19 Vaccines.

Using the OSHA (Occupational and Safety Administration) requirements, the policy will require that any employer who employs more than 100 workers must require employees to be vaccinated or be tested as negative on weekly basis. Additionally, all unvaccinated employees must wear masks at work.

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Via the Department of Health and Human Services (HMS) and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS), all healthcare facilities must require that their workers are fully vaccinated. Since most healthcare facilities receive payment from CMS and to continue to receive these payments, they must comply.

Several states are challenging the constitutionality of the policy. However, until the policy legal challenges are resolved, healthcare mangers must plan and comply.

  • Some people have extraordinarily strong feelings regarding these policies. As a future health care manager, consider and address the following from the management perspective:

Identify two specific reasons that will provide positive benefits for your facility and the management of the facility, by instituting and following the policies described above.

  • Identify two specific reasons that will present a management challenge for your facility and the management of the facility if the Biden Policy is found to not be constitutionally legal and is voided.

Present your material utilizing professional and grammatically correct language.

  • Include correct APA in-text citations and a correct APA Reference list

Question 2: In 1 paragraph answer the following question that is in quotations:

It wouldn’t let me attach the textbook because it was too large, so I copied and pasted what was in the textbook

Forister, J. G., & Blessing, J. D. (2020). Introduction to research and Medical Literature for Health Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Study participants are usually divided into groups. Frequently, the goal of medical research is to compare groups of patients in a meaningful way while controlling for random chance. Healthcare professionals need to answer the following question:

“Should these professional be interested in observing differences or similarities between study groups to achieve statistical significance? Explain your answer!”
The interpretive process may appear complicated initially but is always related to these three essential questions. The first two questions pertain to the null hypothesis. If something different occurred between the groups, the null hypothesis is rejected. If nothing different occurred between the groups, researchers would fail to reject the null hypothesis. The observed test statistic, such as the statistic or the ratio obtained from various computational procedures, is compared to the critical value on the corresponding distribution tables to help answer the first two questions. Assuming the population distribution is normal, and variances are equal, each of the test statistics has a known distribution when the null hypothesis is true. Readers should remember, however, that different values result in different type I error rates. Statistical significance should never be confused with clinical significance. Statistical significance is about the likelihood of observing the results—nothing else. Although calculations for effect size can help answer question three, clinicians ultimately interpret the clinical meaningfulness of study results.

  1. As a reminder, the groups can be unrelated to each other (independent) or related in some way (dependent). The most straightforward comparison occurs between two groups using one categorical independent variable and one continuous dependent variable. In this case, the preferred tests are the independent samples t-test (for independent groups) and the paired t-test (for dependent groups). When more than two groups are studied, the commonly used tests are the one-way ANOVA (for multiple independent groups) and the repeated measures ANOVA (for multiple related groups). Again, each of the tests examines differences between the groups using a single dependent (outcome) variable.

The complexity of test interpretation increases when (1) the groups are categorized using more than one independent variable, (2) the design is mixed (using both independent and repeated measures), or (3) multiple dependent variables are mea- sured. When more than two groups are categorized using more than one independent variable, the one-way ANOVA is replaced by factorial ANOVA.

When multiple dependent variables are mea- sured between two groups, the t-tests are replaced with a procedure called Hotelling’s T2. However, when multiple dependent variables are measured between more than two different groups, the proper procedure is multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA). If the multiple groups are related and measured on more than one dependent variable, a repeated measures MANOVA is used. Each of the test mentioned thus far will be discussed in the following sections.

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