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- contrast populations, gene pools, and communities.
- define, explain the significance, and describe an example of each of four evolutionary forces: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.
- contrast point vs. frame-shift mutations, founder’s effects vs. bottleneck events, and directional vs. stabilizing selection.
- explain how scientists use the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibria Model to assess whether human populations are subject to an evolutionary force.
- define hemoglobin, HbA, HbS, codominant trait, thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, lactase persistence.
- analyze how natural selection affects humans, mosquitos, and Plasmodium (a parasite responsible for malaria).
- explain how the sickling hemoglobin allele (responsible for sickle-cell anemia) is maintained at high rates in certain human populations.
- describe how the frequency of G6PD deficiency alleles are possibly affected by natural selection and genetic drift.
- explain how disease may act as a selective force on human populations.
- analyze how natural selection may affect the distribution of lactose intolerance among human populations.
- define species, speciation, macroevolution, adaptive radiation, convergent/parallel evolution, and extinction.
- contrast the biological and type notion species definitions.
- explain how and why scientists may define species ecologically, phylogenetically, or through mate recognition.
- describe an example of species that have gone through the process of speciation.
- contrast gradualism vs. punctuated equilibria; allopatric, parapatric, & sympatric speciation; cladogenesis (divergent evolution) vs. anagenesis (linear evolution).
- describe how the pace and direction of evolution may vary.
- discuss and describe an example of coevolution.
and from both
- define, describe, and recognize examples of each of four evolutionary forces: mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.
- describe how the genetic makeup of a population can be altered over time by seemingly minor evolutionary forces.
- describe how changes in the structure and frequency of the genetic code can lead to significant changes in species, including humans.
- describe how cultural processes affect the pace of human evolution.
- describe and recognize examples of how the pace, direction, and forces of evolution process of evolution affect species and speciation.
- describe and recognize examples of co-evolution and convergent evolution.